Stamping is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape. Stamping includes a variety of sheet-metal forming manufacturing processes, such as punching using a machine press or stamping press, blanking, embossing, bending, flanging, and coining.
Stamping is usually done on cold metal sheet. See Forging for hot metal forming operations.
- Bending - the material is deformed or bent along a straight line.
- Flanging - the material is bent along a curved line.
- Embossing - the material is stretched into a shallow depression.
- Blanking - a piece is cut out of a sheet of the material, usually to make a blank for further processing.
- Coining - a pattern is compressed or squeezed into the material.
- Drawing - the surface area of a blank is stretched into an alternate shape via controlled material flow.
- Stretching - the surface area of a blank is increased by tension, with no inward movement of the blank edge.
- Ironing - the material is squeezed and reduced in thickness along a vertical wall.
- Reducing/Necking - used to gradually reduce the diameter of the open end of a vessel or tube.
- Curling - deforming material into a tubular profile. Door hinges are a common example.
- Hemming - folding an edge over onto itself to add thickness.